ABOUT THE DISEASE
The inner lining of the uterus is called the endometrium. During the menstrual period, the lining of the endometrium is shed through the vagina. The word "endometriosis" means a problem with the lining of the uterus. In endometriosis, fragments of endometrium move through the fallopian tubes and develop in places other than the inner lining of the uterus. These fragments may develop on the ovaries, in the pelvis, bladder, on the fallopian tubes, the vagina, the peritoneum, or the intestine.
During the menstrual period, this tissue swells and bleeds, just like the lining of uterus. This is often painful, and scar tissue can form in the pelvic area.
Mild forms of endometriosis are common and may not require treatment. Endometriosis can make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant.
No known causes for the same have been identified. One theory is that the endometrial cells that shed when a woman gets her period may travel backwards through the fallopian tubes into the pelvis, where they implant and grow. This is called retrograde menstruation. Any woman who has menstrual periods can get endometriosis. Endometriosis occurs most often between the ages of 25 and 40, but it can also occur in younger women. In rare cases, this condition may also persist after menopause in some women.
The following symptoms may or may not be present and the severity of the problem and the severity of the symptoms have no correlation.
- • Painful menstrual cramps at the start of periods
- • Painful sex
- • Difficulty becoming pregnant
- • Abdominal cramps or back pain during menstruation
- • Painful bowel movements
- Medical history
- Pelvic exam
- Transvaginal ultrasound
The treatment plan depends upon the age of the patient, whether the patient wishes to get pregnant and also on the severity of the symptoms. Medicines help to reduce the size of tissue growth and to relieve painful symptoms.
Treatment for endometriosis symptoms may include:
- • Birth control pills
- • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- • Hormone therapy and
- • Progestins
Surgery may be recommended if pain is severe and does not get better with other treatments. During surgery/Pelvic laparoscopy, the endometrial tissue is removed from the wrong places. In very severe cases, hysterectomy may be recommended.
In cases of mild and severe endometriosis, infertility treatment options like artificial insemination and/or in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be considered.
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Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)